When are Seeds formed?

Seeds are the main means by which flowering plants reproduce and spread. After the plant has been fertilized the egg cells develop into a seed from which a new plant can develop. The seed contains an embryo from which the new plant will grow It also contains a food store to nourish the embryo until it has developed roots and leaves. The seed is enclosed in a tough outer coating to protect it from...

April 25th, 2011 by admin 

When does Pollination take place?

Pollination is the process a transferring pollen from the stamen to stigma. It is possible for flowers to pollinate themselves, or other flowers on the same plant, this is called self-pollination. It is, however, much better for the health of the species if cross-pollination occurs, i.e. pollen is transferred from one plant to another. The most common method involves insects that are attracted to the...

April 23rd, 2011 by admin 

When did the First Plants Appear?

Plants are organisms that use light as a source of energy and to produce the food they need in order to live and grow. The Earth’s original atmosphere contained poisonous gases. The lack of oxygen meant that no animals or plants could survive on the Earth. The earliest plants or plant-like bacteria began the process of photosynthesis, which releases oxygen as well as a waste product.This gas...

April 23rd, 2011 by admin 

When was MORSE CODE developed?

Morse code is a messaging system which uses two kinds of signal, a short one called a dot, and a long one called a dash. The signals are sent via telegraphs. A transmitter sends a coded message in long and short bursts of radio waves along a wire; the receiver Then translates the dots and dashes into their representative letters, numbers and words. Samuel Morse (1791 – 1872) was an American engineer...

April 4th, 2011 by admin 

When were Stained Glass Windows introduced?

Historical documents and excavations have discovered that stained glass was around as far back as the 12th century. These are true stained glass windows which tell a pictorial story and are considered to be the invention of Western Europe. Religious writings dating as far back as 240 AD mention the existence of tinted glass in windows of the early Christian basilicas (churches). Stained glass windows...

March 31st, 2011 by admin 

When did Gold Mining Begin?

Although the time cannot be pinpointed exactly, it is widely believed that gold mining dates back about 5,000 years.The first gold was mined in Egypt, and wall paintings have been found which show gold mining in its various stages of production. Gold was extracted (panned) from river water; this was achieved by sifting out the lighter sands in the water to leave the heavier, gold particles behind....

March 31st, 2011 by admin 

When were the First Books made?

The First books were made about 4,000 years ago by the Egyptians, who used flattened layers of papyrus (a reed-like water plant) to make sheets. The ‘books’ they made were collections of rolled papyrus sheets- very different to a book of today. In the middle of the fifth century, parchment (sheep skin) replaced papyrus. Parchment sheets were placed on top of one another and bound down one...

March 31st, 2011 by admin 

When was the First Plastic made?

Plastics are made by a chemical process called polymerization. Even without today’s technology and up-to-date knowledge, chemists of the nineteenth century understood the making of plastic. The first plastic, vinyl chloride, was made in 1838. This was closely followed by styrene in 1839, acrylics in 1843 and polyester in 1847. But at the time, no-one realised the potential for their use. later...

March 31st, 2011 by admin 

When was World War II?

In March 1939, the German leader Adolph Hitler threatened to invade Poland. Hitler had already shown the seriousness of his intentions by taking over Austria ( in 1938 ) and czechoslovakia ( in 1939 ). Both Great Britain and France gave guarantees to help Poland if it was attacked. So when Hitler invaded Poland on September 1, 1939, Britain and France were forced to declare war on Germany. Under Hitler’s...

March 5th, 2011 by admin 

When do Desert-Dwelling Plants get water?

Plants living in very dry regions are specially adapted to stop them from losing too much water. They have smaller leaves, which are often thin and spiny, or they may have no leaves at all, as in the case of the cactus. Because they have no leaves photosynthesis takes place in the swollen barrel-like stems, which are often covered with protective spines. Desert plants also conserve water by having...

March 2nd, 2011 by admin